Iindaba - Unyaka wokukhulisa i-2018: Amandla amaninzi ahambelana nolawulo lwamandla ngokubanzi phantsi kwe-intanethi yamandla

Iindaba Zokugcina Umnatha kuRhulumente wePolaris: Kungathiwa unyaka wama-2016 nowama-2017 yiminyaka yomqondo 'we-intanethi yamandla. Ngeli xesha, wonke umntu wayesathetha "yintoni i-intanethi ye-enethiwekhi", "kutheni kufanelekile i-intanethi", kwaye "inokuthini ukukhula kwe-intanethi?" Jonga ”. Nangona kunjalo, u-2018 ungene "kunyaka wokufika" kwi-intanethi yamandla, kwaye wonke umntu uxoxa ngokunzulu malunga nendlela yokwenza ngayo. Ulawulo lwezaMandla kuZwelonke kunye neCandelo loSayensi kunye neTekhnoloji ineeprojekthi ezininzi zenkxaso kunye nezixa ezikhulu zotyalo mali, njengebhendi yokuqala yeeprojekthi ze-Intanethi + amandla anobulumko (i-intanethi ye-Intanethi) eyabhengezwa nguLawulo lwezaMandla kuZwelonke ngo-2018.
Iindaba Zokugcina Umnatha kuRhulumente wePolaris: Kungathiwa unyaka wama-2016 nowama-2017 yiminyaka yomqondo 'we-intanethi yamandla. Ngeli xesha, wonke umntu wayesathetha "yintoni i-intanethi ye-enethiwekhi", "kutheni kufanelekile i-intanethi", kwaye "inokuthini ukukhula kwe-intanethi?" Jonga ”. Nangona kunjalo, u-2018 ungene "kunyaka wokufika" kwi-intanethi yamandla, kwaye wonke umntu uxoxa ngokunzulu malunga nendlela yokwenza ngayo. Ulawulo lwaMandla kuZwelonke kunye neCandelo loSayensi kunye neTekhnoloji baneeprojekthi ezininzi zokuxhasa kunye nezixa ezikhulu zotyalo mali. Umzekelo, i-batch yokuqala yeeprojekthi ze- “Internet +” smart energy (amandla e-intanethi) iiprojekthi ezibhengezwe nguLawulo lwezaMandla kuZwelonke ngo-2018.

Kungekudala, iNkomfa ye-Intanethi ye-Intanethi ye-Global Energy ibanjelwe eBeijing. Ngaphezulu kweenkokheli zeshishini ezingama-800 ezivela kumazwe angaphezu kwama-30 kunye nemimandla kwihlabathi lonke ezihlangeneyo ukuze zijonge kumxholo we "Global Energy Internet-From China Initiative to World Action". Shintshiselana ngezimvo, wabelane ngeziphumo, kwaye uxoxe ngezicwangciso zophuhliso lwe-Intanethi zehlabathi.

Kunokuthiwa wonke umntu ujonge kakhulu phambili ekuboneni amandla onxibelelwano, kwaye i-intanethi kulindeleke ukuba izise utshintsho olutsha kubomi bomntu. Kwindibano ye- "Made in China 2025 Summit Foramu" ka-2017, Mnu. umhlaba".

Ukuphuhliswa kwe-intanethi yamandla kuphakamise imibuzo emininzi, imibono emitsha kunye neetekhnoloji eziphambili. Ngokujula kophando, i-intanethi yamandla emimandla iphakanyisiwe ngumntu wonke. Ungayichaza njani i-intanethi yecandelo lamandla ombane: Ukuba i-intanethi yamandla ithathwa njengeyakhelwe phezu kwengcinga ye-Intanethi Ulwazi lwe-fusion "Indawo ebanzi yeNethiwekhi" inokuhambelana namandla ombane njenge "ndawo yenethiwekhi yendawo", ebizwa ngokuba "yenethiwekhi yamandla engingqi", etshintshiselana ulwazi kunye nokuhlaziywa kwamandla kunye ne "Wide Area Network" ngaphandle, kubonelela ngolawulo lwamandla kunye nenkonzo.

Inethiwekhi yaMandla weSithili

Igridi yamandla yommandla sisiseko sohlalutyo lwenkqubo yamandla amaninzi kunye nokubonakaliswa kwekhonkrithi yeempawu zeenkqubo zamandla amaninzi. Ukusuka kwimbonakalo yokusebenza, inkqubo yamandla amaninzi inokudibanisa izinto ezahlukeneyo zamandla, kwaye ihlengahlengise ukuhanjiswa ngokwezinto ezinje ngexabiso kunye nefuthe lokusingqongileyo; ngokwembono yeenkonzo zamandla, iimfuno zabasebenzisi ezininzi ziqwalaselwa ngokweenkcukacha kwaye kuthunyelwe ngokomgaqo Ukufezekisa injongo yokugcoba kunye nokuzalisa intlambo, kunye nokusetyenziswa kwamandla okufanelekileyo; ngokombono wothungelwano lwamandla, ngokuhlaziya ngokudibeneyo kweenethiwekhi zombane, uthungelwano lwerhasi yendalo, uthungelwano lobushushu, kunye nezinye iinethiwekhi, ukukhuthaza uphuhliso lweetekhnoloji zamandla ezininzi. Indawo inokuba yindawo enkulu njengesixeko, idolophu, uluntu oluncinci njengepaki yemizi-mveliso, amashishini amakhulu, ukwakha, okugubungela iinkqubo zamandla ezihlanganisiweyo ezifana nokuhambisa umbane, ukuhambisa igesi, ukufudumeza, ukubonelela nge-hydrogen, kunye nokuhamba ngombane kunye nonxibelelwano olunxulumene noko kunye neziseko zolwazi. Into esisiseko sesibonelelo kukuba kufuneka ibe nayo amakhonkco okuvelisa amandla, ukuhambisa, ukuguqula, ukugcina, kunye nosetyenziso. Kule nethiwekhi yommandla yokudityaniswa kwamandla amaninzi, abathwali bolwazi babandakanya "ukuhamba kombane", "ukuhamba kwegesi yendalo", kunye "nolwazi". Ukuhamba ”,“ ukuhamba kwezinto ”, njl. Ngenxa yobukhulu bawo obuncinci, inethiwekhi yamandla engingqi inokukhokelwa kwaye yakhiwe kwaye iphunyezwe ngurhulumente, iinkampani zamandla kunye namashishini amakhulu emizi-mveliso, kwaye inexabiso elisebenzayo elinamandla. Inethiwekhi yamandla engingqi yinxalenye ye-intanethi yamandla, ebandakanya amakhonkco amandla amaninzi kwaye aneefom ezahlukeneyo kunye neempawu. Ibandakanya zombini ukunxibelelana kwamandla okulula ukulawula kunye nokunxibelelana kunye nobunzima bokulawula iilinki zamandla; ikwanawo namandla ekunzima ukuwagcina kumthamo omkhulu, Ikwanawo namandla ekulula ukuwugcina kunye nokuwahambisa; Zombini kukho unxibelelwano olulungelelanisiweyo kwisiphelo sokuphehla kwamandla ombane kunye nokulungelelaniswa kokusetyenziswa kokusetyenziswa kwamandla.

Iimpawu eziphambili ze-intanethi yamandla emimandla

Xa kuthelekiswa ne-intanethi yommandla wamandla engingqi, inethiwekhi yamandla engingqi isebenzisa iintlobo ngeentlobo zamashishini amashishini kunye nabahlali kwindawo yengingqi njengeqela lomsebenzisi. Ngokuqokelela ukuveliswa kwamandla, ukusetyenziswa, ukuhambisa, ukugcinwa kunye nenye idatha yolwazi, ngokuhlaziywa kwedatha, ukulungelelaniswa kwamandla kunye nokwenza umsebenzi Ngokuhambelana noku, i-intanethi yomnqamlezo-wengingqi esebenza njengekhonkco phakathi kwe-intanethi yamandla eyahlukeneyo. Ngokuhambisa amandla amakhulu, ukuhambisa igesi kunye nezinye iindlela zothungelwano lwangasemva, ukuhanjiswa kwamandla omgama omde phakathi kwemimandla kunokufikelelwa, kuqinisekiswa ngokhuseleko kunye nokuzinza kwe-Intanethi yamandla kwingingqi nganye ekwindawo yokhuseleko. Sebenza ukubonelela ngaphakathi kwendawo yamandla xa kugubungela imiphandle kwi-Intanethi kunye nokusilela. Ukulungiselela ukuhambelana nokuhanjiswa kwamandla kunye nephethini yokufuna kwimimandla yendawo, kwisiseko sokufumana ngokupheleleyo amava amahle enkqubo yokuphuhliswa kwe-Intanethi, i-intanethi yamandla engingqi yenze ezinye iimpawu ezahlukileyo kwi-Intanethi yomnqamlezo wombane.

Inye yezinto ezininzi ezisebenza ngokuhambelana

Ukulungiselela ukufezekisa imfuno yomthwalo onzima kulo mmandla, inani elikhulu lamaziko asasaziweyo asasazwa ngaphakathi kwinqanaba le-Intanethi yamandla engingqi, egubungela ukusasazwa kweCCHP, ubushushu kunye namandla CHP, ukuveliswa kwamandla ombane, ingqokelela yobushushu belanga, i-hydrogen izikhululo zemveliso, umhlaba Iintlobo ngeentlobo ezinjengempompo yokushisa ubushushu zenza inkqubo yokubonelela eyintlanganisela yeendlela ezahlukeneyo zamandla njengokuqokelelwa kombane, ubushushu, ukupholisa, negesi, enokuthi ikusebenzise ngokufanelekileyo ukusetyenziswa kwamandla emidlalo yamandla. Kwangelo xesha, i-intanethi yamandla ombane ibonelela ngemigangatho yokudibanisa kunye nokudlala kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zokufikelela kwamandla ombane, kodwa oku kukwabeka phambili iimfuno eziphezulu zokwenza ufezekiso nolawulo lwe-intanethi yamandla. Ngesi sizathu, ukucwangciswa kombane kwerhasi, itekhnoloji ye-P2G, itekhnoloji yeV2G, kunye netekhnoloji yeeseli zegesi, ezikhuthaza ukudityaniswa kwamandla ombane, ziya kudlala indima ebalulekileyo kwixesha elizayo.

Okwesibini kukusebenzisana ngendlela ezimbini

I-intanethi yamandla eengingqi iya kwaphula imodeli ekhoyo yamandla ombane-yokuhamba kunye nokwenza imodeli yasimahla, yokuhambisa umbane kunye nonokulungelelaniswa wokuhamba kwamandla okuphela. Iindlela zokuhambisa ezisasazwayo ziya kunika amandla ukunxibelelana kwamandla nakweyiphi na indawo kwindawo. Ukufakwa kwezikhululo zokuguqula amandla okanye ii-hubs zamandla kuya kuphula izithintelo zeshishini phakathi kweenkampani zokuqala zokufudumeza, iinkampani zamandla kunye neenkampani zerhasi, kunye nabahlali abaxhotyiswe ngezixhobo zombane ezisasaziweyo kulindeleke ukuba bathathe inxaxheba kunikezelo lwamandla e-Intanethi kunye namanye amandla ababoneleli. Kwixa elizayo, ngophuhliso olukhawulezayo lweshishini yezithuthi zombane, uthungelwano lwezothutho olunezithuthi ezihamba ngombane ezinobuchule njengoko ungowona mzimba uphambili uya kudityaniswa nemodeli ye-Intanethi ekhoyo yamandla.

Isithathu kukuzimela ngokupheleleyo

Ngokwahlukileyo kwindlela yokusetyenziswa kwamandla yendabuko, i-intanethi yamandla ombane isebenzisa ngokupheleleyo izixhobo ezahlukeneyo zamandla kwingingqi, izakhela inkqubo eyaneleyo yamandla kwingingqi, ifumana amandla asasazeke ngaphakathi kwingingqi, kwaye ikwazi ukusetyenziswa ngokuchanekileyo kwezixhobo ezahlukeneyo amaziko ombane. Kwangelo xesha, njengecandelo lesiseko se-enethiwekhi yamandla angasemva, i-Intanethi yamandla engingqi kunye nenethiwekhi yomva womva igcina indlela yokuhambisa amandla ngeendlela ezimbini, ngoncedo lwenethiwekhi enkulu yamandla omqolo kunye nezinye i-Intanethi zamandla eengingqi iindlela ezimbini zokutshintshiselana amandla kunye nolwazi.

Ngokusekwe kwezi mpawu zingasentla, eyona nto iphambili kwi-Intanethi yamandla kwi-Intanethi kukusebenzisa "i-Intanethi +" ukucinga ukuseta kwakhona iimfuno zenethiwekhi yamandla, ukufikelela kwinqanaba eliphezulu lokudityaniswa kwamandla kunye nolwazi, kunye nokukhuthaza ukwakhiwa kolwazi lwenethiwekhi yamandla izakhiwo. Ngokwazisa ngeetekhnoloji ezinje ngeqonga lokurhweba nge-Intanethi kunye nokulungiswa kwedatha enkulu, i-Intanethi ye-Intanethi iya kuba yeyam ngokupheleleyo isixa esikhulu solwazi njengokuveliswa kwamandla, ukuhambisa, ukusebenzisa, ukuguqula, kunye nokugcina, kunye nokukhokela ukuveliswa kwamandla kunye nokucwangciswa kwetekhnoloji yezobugcisa bezokumbiwa njengoko ibango lamandla okuqikelela kunye nempendulo kwicala elifunwayo.

Uziqonda njani izibonelelo eziqinisekileyo zecandelo le-intanethi yamandla ombane, uNjingalwazi uSu Hongbin weYunivesithi yaseTsinghua ucetywe ngokobuqu: Amandla amaninzi ahambelana nolawulo lwamandla e-intanethi. Xa umhleli watyelela uNjingalwazi uSun kwiYunivesithi yaseTsinghua ngo-2015, wakhankanya uphando. KwiNkomfa ye-Intanethi ye-Intanethi yeSizwe ngoDisemba ka-2017, uNjingalwazi uShe Sabelane ngokusesikweni kwaye waxoxa ngeziphumo zophando.

Eyona ngxaki ilawulayo yokulawula ukwandisa izibonelelo

Ungazandisa njani izibonelelo phantsi kwesiseko sokunikezelwa kombane okukhuselekileyo “ngokudityaniswa kwamandla kunye nolungelelwaniso lwentlawulo yomnatha” ngumba ojolise kugxilwe ziingcali kakhulu ekuphunyezweni kweprojekthi yokubonisa amandla e-intanethi. Akukho lula ukufezekisa oku. Ukusuka kumbono wezobuchwephesha, le ngxaki kugxilwe kuyo inokuthi ibonwe kulawulo olugqibeleleyo lwenethiwekhi yokuhamba kwamandla okuninzi. Le ngxaki iphezulu yokulawula kukusukela phezulu ekwandiseni isibonelelo, inzuzo = inkcitho engeniso, kunye nesakhiwo esinyanzelekileyo sesibonelelo samandla esikhuselekileyo. Ingeniso apha ibandakanya ukuthengiswa kwamandla kunye neenkonzo, kwaye iindleko zibandakanya ukuthenga amandla kunye neenkonzo. Iindlela ezenziwe kakuhle zasasazwa kubanda, kushushu, igesi, umbane, amanzi, ezothutho, umthombo, inethiwekhi, intlawulo, ugcino kunye nolunye unxibelelwano. Izithintelo zibandakanya ukulingana phakathi kokunikezelwa kunye nemfuno, ububanzi bokusebenza, kunye nokhuseleko lokubonelelwa kwamandla. Le ngxaki kugxilwa kuyo ekugqibeleni yenziwa yinkqubo, ebizwa ngokuba yiNkqubo eDibeneyo yoLawulo lwaMandla (i-IEMS).

Imbali ye-EMS

I-IEMS inokuthathwa njengenkqubo yesine yolawulo lwamandla esizukulwana (Inkqubo yoLawulo lwaMandla, i-EMS). I-EMS yinkqubo yokwenza izigqibo ngekhompyuter yohlalutyo lwe-Intanethi, ukwenziwa kunye nolawulo olusetyenzisiweyo kwiziko lokulawula ukuthunyelwa kwamandla kwigridi. Iziko le-nerve kunye nendawo yokuhambisa yokuhambisa amandla kwigridi yamandla, kunye nomxholo wobulumko begridi yamandla amakhulu. Iqela lophando likaNjingalwazi beqela le-EMS iminyaka engaphezu kwengama-30. Okokuqala, makhe siqwalasele imbali ye-EMS.

Isizukulwana sokuqala se-EMS savela ngaphambi kuka-1969 kwaye sabizwa ngokuba yi-EMS yokuqala. Le EMS ibandakanya i-SCADA kuphela yokubonelela ngombane, kodwa iqokelela kuphela idatha. Akukho luhlaziyo lwenethiwekhi lwangempela-time, ukwenziwa kunye nolawulo lwentsebenziswano. Uhlalutyo lwenethiwekhi kunye nokwenza lula kuxhomekeke kubalo olungaxhunyiwe kwi-intanethi, kwaye ulilungiselelo le-empirical. Ulawulo lwangoku lwepaki akufuneki luyeke kwinqanaba lokumiselwa kweshedyuli, kodwa lifuna ulawulo olungenantlonelo ukuphucula ukhuphiswano olusisiseko.

Isizukulwana sesibini se-EMS savela ekuqaleni kweminyaka yee-1970s ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yama-21 kwaye sabizwa ngokuba yi-EMS yesiko. Umseki wesi sizukulwana se-EMS nguGqr Dy-Liacco, owacebisa imodeli esisiseko yokulawulwa kwenkqubo yamandla, uhlalutyo lwenethiwekhi yokwenziwa kwexesha lokwenyani, impumelelo, kunye nolawulo lwentsebenziswano, ke ke ngeye-1970s, i-EMS ikhule ngokukhawuleza. ilizwe lam likugqibe ukungeniswa kweenkqubo eziphambili zokuhambisa amandla kwigridi ye-automation ngo-1988, emva koko bagqibe ukugaya, ukuthabatha, kunye nokuphinda baphuhlise ukuphucula i-EMS ngamalungelo obunini obunikazi bezindlu. Ngeli xesha, iYunivesithi yaseTsinghua yathatha inxaxheba ekungenisweni, ekugayeni nasekuthweni kwe-EMS ye-Northeast Power Grid. Ngenxa yokuba i-Northeast yayisisiseko seshishini elinzima ngelo xesha, uhlengahlengiso lwenethiwekhi ye-Northeast Power Grid yayilelona likhulu, kwaye owona mthwalo mkhulu kwilizwe wawuseNyakatho mpuma. Okwangoku, i-EMS yekhaya ibisisiseko sendawo. Ukucwangciswa okwenziwa ngeli xesha sele kungokweshedyuli yohlalutyo kwaye inyukele kwinqanaba elitsha.

Isizukulwana sesithathu i-EMS yigridi efanelekileyo ye-EMS ehlelwe ngumthombo kunye nenethiwekhi. Yabonakala emva kophuhliso lwamandla amakhulu ahlaziyekayo. Ngeli xesha, kwakungekho kwintsebenzo yamandla amaninzi, kuphela intsebenziswano yenethiwekhi yomthombo. Xa ujonga ukungalawuleki kunye neempawu eziguqukayo zamandla amakhulu ahlaziyekayo, izixhobo ezininzi eziguqukayo ziyafuneka, ukusuka kumthombo-ukuya kuthumelo-ukusasazwa. Ngeli xesha, i-EMS inokudibanisa kwaye isebenzise oovimba bolwazi abasasaziweyo ukuphucula ulungelelwaniso oluzibhalisiweyo nolusasazwayo Ulwakhiwo, ukusuka kumthombo, kunethiwekhi eNetherlands, ine-EMS ehambelana nayo. Kukho ii-EMS zeefama zomoya kunye nezityalo zamandla e-Photovoltaic, i-EMS yeenqwelo zombane, izakhiwo namakhaya, kunye ne-EMS yokuhambisa umbane, ukuhambisa, kunye negridi-grid. Ezi EMS okokuqala ziyaziqhelanisa, kwaye zidityaniswe kunye ngothungelwano lonxibelelwano ukwenza intsebenziswano. Ngelo xesha, inokubizwa ngokuba yintsapho ye-EMS. Kukho amalungu amaninzi kusapho lwe-EMS, kwaye amalungu ahlukeneyo aneempawu ezahlukileyo zokunxibelelana ngokudibeneyo kumthombo kunye nentsebenziswano kwinethiwekhi yegridi efanelekileyo.

Isizukulwana sesine okanye isizukulwane esilandelayo se-EMS sibizwa ngokuba yinkqubo yamandla ahlanganisiweyo yolawulo lwamandla, oko kukuthi, i-IEMS. Umdibaniso apha ukudibanisa kunye nokudibanisa imithombo yamandla eyahlukeneyo. Ngenxa yokwahlulahlula kwemithombo eyahlukeneyo yamandla kunye nokusebenza ngokuncinci kwamandla, ukusetyenziswa ngokugqibeleleyo kunye ne-Cascade kuyafuneka; ngaxeshanye, ngenxa yokunqongophala okukhulu kwezixhobo eziguqukayo, isixa esikhulu somoya, amanzi kunye nokukhanya, kuyimfuneko ukwanda ukuya kudityaniso lwamandla ahlukeneyo kwaye ufumanise kwimithombo eyahlukeneyo yemithombo eNtsha yezixhobo eziguqukayo zokuxhasa ukusetyenziswa yamandla amakhulu ahlaziyekayo; ngokusebenza ngokugqibeleleyo kunye neshedyuli yenzuzo ephezulu, kwisiseko sokuqinisekisa ukuhanjiswa kombane kunye nomgangatho ophezulu, ukunciphisa iindleko zokusetyenziswa kwamandla kunye nokuphucula ukusebenza kakuhle kwezoqoqosho kweenkonzo zamandla ezibanzi.

Kufana nengqondo, Ngaphantsi yinkqubo yamandla ebanzi, ukubanda, ubushushu, irhasi, umbane, amanzi, ezothutho, zonke iintlobo zokuhamba kwamandla, okubizwa ngokuba kukuhamba kwamandla amaninzi. Kwinkomfa yeZizwe eziManyeneyo yaMandla (i-ICAE) ebibanjelwe e-UK, le nkqubo yathathelwa ingqalelo njengengazange yabakho ehlabathini. Iziphumo zamva nje zakhutshwa ngo-2017 kwiYunivesithi yaseTsinghua, "INkqubo eNinzi yoLawulo lwaMandla i-Multiple Energy Management ePark" iyimveliso yokuqala ye-IEMS. Kunzima kakhulu kwiqela lophando ukwandisa igridi ye-EMS yeminyaka engama-30 kwi-IEMS. Emva kweminyaka emi-5 yophando kunye nophuhliso, kwaye isekwe kwiminyaka engama-30 yophando lwe-EMS yegridi kunye namava ophuhliso, i-IEMS yaphuhliswa ngempumelelo.

Eyona misebenzi iphambili ye-IEMS

Amandla amaninzi ukuhamba kwe-SCADA. Isetyenziselwa ukuqaphela umsebenzi opheleleyo kunye nokusebenza okuphezulu-okuzinzileyo-okwenyani yokuqokelelwa kwedatha kunye nemisebenzi yokubeka iliso. Sisiseko sesilumkiso esilandela kwangoko, ukusebenzisa, kunye nokulawula imisebenzi, kunye nokusebenzisa isoftware yenkqubo ukuxhasa iinkonzo ezibonelelwa liqonga. Ukuhamba okuninzi kwamandla kwe-SCADA "yinkqubo yeemvakalelo" ye-IEMS. Ngokusekwe kwi-Intanethi ye-Amandla, iqokelela idatha yokuhamba kwamandla amaninzi (isampula yokuhamba rhoqo: umbane ukwinqanaba lesibini, kwaye ubushushu / ukupholisa / umoya okwinqanaba lesibini okanye lomzuzu) ukugqiba umsebenzi ohambelanayo wokubeka iliso. Kwaye unikezele ngedatha kuqikelelo lombuso kunye neemodyuli zomsebenzi wesicelo sangaphambili, fumana imiyalelo yokulawula ukusebenza kwenkqubo, kwaye uzithumele kwizixhobo zenkqubo zokwenza ulawulo lwangaphandle / imiqondiso yolungelelwaniso olukude. Ukuhamba kwamandla kwe-SCADA yokuhamba kwamandla amaninzi kubandakanya ukuhanjiswa kokuhamba kwamandla, ukuhamba kwezitishi zentsimi, imisebenzi yenkqubo, ukubek'esweni okugcwele, ulwazi lomsebenzi, uhlalutyo novavanyo, kunye ne-alamu ekrelekrele.

Uqikelelo lwemigangatho yamandla amaninzi. Ngenxa yosasazo olubanzi lweendawo zokulinganisa kuthungelwano lwe-sensor yamandla ombane, iintlobo ngeentlobo zemilinganiselo, umgangatho wedatha esezantsi, ubunzima bokugcinwa, kunye novakalelo oluphezulu lweemvakalelo, akunakulindeka ukuba ukuqokelelwa kwedatha okungaphelelanga kunye neempazamo kuya kwenzeka . Ke, uthungelwano lwamandla amaninzi lufuna ubuchwephesha bokulinganisa ilizwe ukubonelela ngexesha lexesha elifanelekileyo, elinokuthenjwa, elingaguqukiyo kunye nelizwe eligqibeleleyo, elinikezela isiseko sovavanyo kunye nokwenza izigqibo kwe-IEMS. Uqikelelo lwemeko yokuhamba okuninzi kwamandla ukugqiba idatha yokulinganisa kunye nokuphelisa idatha engeyiyo, ukuze idatha engendawo iqikelelwe, ibonakale, kwaye ichongeke, kwaye ekugqibeleni kuncitshiswe inani lokufakwa kwenzwa, kuncitshiswe ubunzima bokunxibelelana kwenethiwekhi, kunye nokunciphisa Utyalomali kunye neendleko zenethiwekhi yenzwa. Iziphumo zeendleko zesondlo ziphucula ukuthembeka kovavanyo kunye nokwenza izigqibo ngokuphucula ukuthembeka kwedatha esisiseko, kunye nokunciphisa umngcipheko weengozi zenethiwekhi yokusebenza.

Uvavanyo lokuhamba nokuhamba kwamandla okuninzi Ukubaluleka kokhuseleko kuyabonakala ngokwakho, kwaye ukhuseleko lwenkqubo yamandla luhambelana ikakhulu nokhuseleko lobomi kunye nepropathi. Kwelinye icala, kuyimfuneko ukuseka umxholo "we-N-1 crit mkhombandlela wokhuseleko. Lo mbono kukuthathela ingqalelo kunxibelelwano olongenamandla kwaye wenze isicwangciso. Umzekelo sanikezelwa kwinkomfa yemithombo yeendaba ngezinto eziphumezileyo ngale ntsasa. Kwathethwa ukuba ukuphuma kwamandla amakhulu eTaiwan kwakubangelwa kukusilela kwerhasi yegesi. Emva koko i-valve yikhonkco elibuthakathaka kwinkqubo yokudibanisa umbane ngegesi. Ke ngoko, kufuneka sijongise amakhonkco angenamandla, kwaye kufuneka kubekho isicwangciso seengxaki, kungenjalo siya kujongana nengozi enkulu. Kwelinye icala, kubalulekile ukuba unikele ingqalelo kulawulo lokhuseleko lwesango lepaki. Ukwabiwa kwamandla kunye nendleko zokusebenza kwesango lepaki ngumcimbi ophambili. Kwelinye icala, ebanzi, ubungakanani bayo, okuphezulu kwendleko zotyalo-mali, Umzekelo, iindleko zizonke zotyalo mali kunye nokusebenza kwamandla e-MW angama-50 kunye ne-100 MW yezahlulo zahluke kakhulu. Ukuba yenzelwe njengomthamo wama-50 MW, umtshintshi uya kutshiswa kwimeko apho kugqithe khona owona mthamo. Ukulawula ukuhamba kwesango ngaphakathi kwee-megawatts ezingama-50 yingxaki yolawulo lokhuseleko. Kwinkqubo yokuhamba kwamandla amaninzi, iinkqubo ezahlukeneyo zamandla ziyahlanganiswa kwaye ziphenjelelwe enye nenye. Inxalenye ethile yeziphoso kunye nokuphazamiseka kuyakuchaphazela amanye amalungu enkqubo yokuhamba kwamandla amaninzi, enokubangela ukuphendulwa kwetyathari, ngoko ke kufuneka kwenziwe uhlalutyo lokudibanisa. Ungasebenzisa ukuguquguquka okubonelelwe yi-inertia yobushushu, irhasi kunye nezinye iinkqubo ukubonelela ngeendlela ezintsha kulawulo lokhuseleko lweenkqubo zombane. Ungazisebenzisa ezi ndlela zintsha ukwenza ulawulo olusebenzayo lokhuseleko.

Ukuhamba kwamandla okwenza izinto ezininzi. Kukho iikhonsepthi ezahlukeneyo apha: ukuqala kokumisa ukucwangcisa, ucwangciso lwemihla ngemihla, ucwangciso lwemihla ngemihla, kunye nolawulo lwexesha lokwenyani. Ipaki okanye ukubonelelwa kathathu esixekweni, iyunithi yegesi, kunye ne-boiler yombane kungaqalwa kwaye kumiswe. Ezinye izixhobo zinokupheliswa ukunciphisa iindleko. Oku kunokuqalwa kwaye kumiswe ngokuqala ngokuchanekileyo kunye nesicwangciso sokumisa esichazwe kwiintsuku ezimbalwa ezidlulileyo. Emva koko lungelelanisa ukuba ingakanani imveliso esekwe ekuqaliseni nasekuyekeni, oku kukucwangciswa kwemihla ngemihla. Ukuhanjiswa kwemihla ngemihla ngenxa yeenguqu zokuphuma kwamandla omoya kunye notshintsho lomthwalo, ngoko ke kuyafuneka ukuba uhlengahlengise usuku ngaphakathi ukuze uhambelane nokuveliswa kwamandla afanelekileyo okugcina kunye nokugcina uzinzo olululo phakathi kokukhupha kunye nomthwalo. Ekugqibeleni, xa inqanaba lesibini lifikile, ulawulo luyafuneka. Ukhuseleko lwenethiwekhi, ukumisela i-voltage, kunye nemodyuli yokuhamba rhoqo, ulawulo lwexesha lokwenyani liyafuneka. Ixesha lokucwangciswa lide, ngokubanzi kumacandelo emizuzu eli-15, kwaye ulawulo luyimizuzwana, kwaye ubude bexesha bufutshane. Kwinkqubo yokuhamba kwamandla amaninzi, kukho iindlela ezinokulawuleka ngakumbi kunenkqubo enye yamandla. Ngokombono wokugcinwa kwemithamo yegridi yomthombo, ucwangciso olubanzi kunye nolawulo lokupholisa, ukufudumeza, igesi kunye nombane kunokufezekiswa.

Ixabiso le-eneji yee-node ezininzi zokuhamba kwamandla. Ipaki okanye isixeko esihlakaniphile kufuneka siqwalasele ukwakha imodeli yangaphakathi elungileyo kakhulu yeshishini. Imodeli yangaphakathi yeshishini ayisiyangaphandle, ingekho ngaphezulu, kodwa kubasebenzisi epakini. Ingaba imodeli enjalo yeshishini ijongeka njani? Eyona modeli yesayensi yimodeli yexabiso le-node. Imodeli yexabiso le-node energy kuqala kufuneka ibalwe ukumisela iindleko zokusebenzisa amandla kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo. Iindleko zokusebenzisa amandla zibandakanya amacandelo amane: enye yindleko yokukhutshwa kwamandla; okwesibini lixabiso lokuphulukana nelahleko; okwesithathu lixabiso lokudibana kwenethiwekhi; ezine lixabiso lokudityaniswa kwamandla amaninzi. Ke kubalulekile ukuba ngokwesayensi nangokuchanekileyo ukubala ixabiso lamandla e-node nganye, kubandakanya nexabiso lokubanda, ubushushu, irhasi nombane, kunye nexabiso lamaxesha ahlukeneyo kunye neendawo ezahlukeneyo. Kubalo oluchanekileyo kuphela apho iindleko eziphelele zamandla epakini zinokuncitshiswa kakhulu, kuba ungasebenzisa iisiginali zamaxabiso ukukhokela abasebenzisi ukuba basebenzise amandla. Ngale ndlela, iindleko zamandla zepaki yonke zinokuncitshiswa kakhulu ngamaxabiso amandla aguqukayo.

Ixabiso lamandla e-node lisetelwe ngokweendleko zomthengisi ezibandakanyekayo kwimveliso. Xa umgca uvaliwe, amaxabiso endawo nganye ahambisa amaxabiso ahlukeneyo ngokwendawo leyo. Ixabiso lexesha lokwenyani linokuvuselela ukuguquguquka kwicala lomsebenzisi. Ixabiso lamandla e-node libonisa indleko ngokwesayensi, eluncedo ekusekweni kwendlela elungileyo yentengiso yangaphakathi.

Amandla amaninzi ahamba-njalo. Isikhululo samandla esibonakalayo yimodeli yeshishini kwintengiso ephezulu. Ipaki yonke okanye isixeko sinokujikwa sibe ngumatshini omkhulu wamandla. Nangona ayisosixhobo sombane esibonakalayo, zininzi izinto ezisasaziweyo ezifana nokugcina amandla kunye nokushushubeza okuhlanganisiweyo, ukupholisa kunye namandla. Kwisidlali esikhulu esiguqukayo sentengiso. Ngenxa yomthamo omncinci kunye nenani elikhulu lezixhobo ezisasaziweyo, kunzima ukuphatha ukuthengisa ngokukodwa. Ngokuqokelelwa kwezityalo zamandla ombane, izixhobo ezisasaziweyo ezininzi zinokulungelelaniswa kwaye zilungiselelwe ngokusetyenziswa kwesoftware ukubonelela ngochuku lokuhamba, imodyuli yokuhamba rhoqo, ukumiselwa kombane kunye nezinye iinkonzo zentengiso zangaphandle. Ukusebenza kulwabiwo olululo kunye nokusetyenziswa kwezixhobo zizonke. Imodeli enjalo yeshishini inokuzisa izibonelelo eziphezulu zoqoqosho, ezithe zaba yinto eUnited States.

Ngokusekwe kuthumelo olwenziwe ngokugqibeleleyo, indawo yokugcina amandla inokubangela ukuhambisa umbane osasaziweyo, umthwalo onokulawuleka kunye nezixhobo zokugcina amandla epakini kwindawo ebonakalayo enokulawuleka, ukwenzela ukuba ipaki ithathe inxaxheba ekusebenzeni nasekuhanjisweni kwegidi yamandla ekumgangatho ophezulu njenge iyonke. Isikhululo samandla ombane silungelelanisa ukungangqinelani phakathi kwegridi yamandla akumanqanaba aphezulu kunye nezixhobo ezisasaziweyo, sisebenzisa ngokupheleleyo ixabiso kunye nezibonelelo ezisasazwa zizibonelelo kwi-grid yamandla kunye nabasebenzisi, kwaye ziyaqonda ukusebenzisana okunobungane kwigridi yamandla.

Lo mzobo ulandelayo ubonakalisa ulwakhiwo lwangaphakathi lwesakhiwo esinamandla aninzi ahamba ngamandla

Kamva, ingumthombo wokugcina umthwalo. Icala lomthombo libandakanya izixhobo zokuhambisa umbane eziqhelekileyo, iiyunithi ze-CHP, iirhasi zerhasi kunye nezinye izixhobo, kunye noncedo lwamandla kwigridi yangaphandle kunye nokufikelela kombane ohlaziyiweyo; igridi yahlulwe kubanda kunye nobushushu kunye nezinye iinkqubo zokuhambisa; icala laseDatshi ngumbane, ubushushu kunye nomthwalo obandayo ngaphakathi kwepaki Ngokuhambelana nokugcinwa kwamandla, iindlela zangaphantsi zamandla ezinazo izixhobo zokugcina amandla. Kwikhombandlela ende, umbane, irhasi, ubushushu kunye nokubanda kwamandla ombane ngokuhambelana. Inkqubo esetyenziswayo yamandla ahlukeneyo imelwe ngemibala eyahlukeneyo, kunye nezixhobo zokuguqula amandla amaninzi (iimpompo zokushisa, i-CHP, iirhasi zerhasi, iiyunithi zebromum ye-lithium) iziseko ezingaphantsi kwamandla. Iindlela ezahlukeneyo zamandla epakini zidityanisiwe kwaye zisebenza ngohlobo lwezityalo ezinamandla. Kwisakhiwo sokuqinisekisa ukubonelelwa ngombane okuthembekileyo, ubushushu kunye nokupholisa imithwalo, ukusetyenziswa kwamaklayenti kuyafezekiswa, ukusebenza kakuhle kwamandla kuyaphuculwa, kunye neendleko zamandla ziyancitshiswa. Kwaye kumandla aguquguqukayo kakhulu, amandla ahlanganisiweyo anokuguquguquka okungakumbi, okukhuthaza ukwamkelwa kwamandla ahlaziyekayo kunye nokuphucula ngakumbi uqoqosho lwenkqubo.

Ityala lesicelo se-IEMS

Iprojekthi ye-“Internet +” ye-Smart Energy (ene-Intanethi ye-Intanethi) yeProjekthi yeSithili saseChengdu Hi-tech West. IChengdu West High-tech Zone yipaki yemizi mveliso emalunga neekhilomitha ezingama-40. Inkqubo ye-IEMS ihlaziya ukubonelelwa kunye nemfuno yamandla apheleleyo apha ukuze kufezekiswe amandla amaninzi entsebenzisanayo. Ukugxila kwimfuno yamandla ombane, irhasi, ukupholisa kunye nobushushu, ukwakhiwa kwepaki yokubonisa ye-intanethi esekwe kwindawo ecocekileyo yamandla (ukubanda kwegesi yendalo kunye nobushushu obufumeneyo, ifotovoltaics, amandla omoya, njalo njalo) iya kuba yenziwe ukuze kufezekiswe igesi yendalo kunye namandla e-geothermal kwindawo ephezulu yentshona, Umoya kunye nelanga, umphunga, amanzi abandayo, amanzi ashushu, umbane nolawulo lwamandla.

Inkqubo yokulawulwa kwamandla e-Guangzhou Conghua Industrial Park ebanzi ye-R&D kunye neprojekthi yokubonisa. Eyona ndawo iphambili yale paki imalunga neekhilomitha ezili-12 kwaye ikwayepaki yemizi-mveliso. Iphethini yamandla epakini yemizi-mveliso ibonakaliswa ngumthamo omkhulu, ukuhamba kwamandla amaninzi, kunye nokungena okuphezulu. Inemibandela elungileyo esisiseko yokudibana kwamandla amaninzi kunye nokuhambisa okunamandla amaninzi. Ilungele ngakumbi ukubonakaliswa kwemodeli ye- “Internet +” ehlanganisiweyo yemodeli yenkonzo yamandla. Indawo. Yakha inkqubo ye-IEMS epakini, iphakamise indawo yokubonisa amandla ombane kunye nendlela yokuphendula yomsebenzisi, ukumilisela itekhnoloji yolawulo lokuhambelana kolungelelwaniso lwezixhobo, kwaye ekugqibeleni inkqubo iyaziqonda izicelo zokuhambisa.

Iprojekthi ye-R & D yenkqubo yokulawula amandla e-smart shopper kwisiqithi saseLisha, eDongguan, eGuangdong. Isiqithi seDongguan Lisha sikwipaki yemizi-mveliso emalunga neekhilomitha ezili-12. Inkqubo ye-Lisha Island smart energy yahlulwe yangamanqanaba amane alandelayo: okokuqala, ulawulo lwamandla epakini phantsi kokudityaniswa kwe-thermoelectricity; Okwesibini, kukho iingxaki xa umgaqo-nkqubo unganikwanga lulawulo lweMeko yoLawulo lweMeko yePaki; Okwesithathu, ulawulo lwamandla emimandla ngomgaqo-nkqubo wenkululeko epheleleyo; Okwesine, ukusebenzisana (ukuthengiselana) phakathi kwexesha elizayo kunye nenkqubo enkulu yokudala umthengisi wamandla odibeneyo. Uphando kunye nophuhliso lwenkqubo yolawulo lwamandla yahlulwe ngokwamanqanaba amane: okokuqala, iyonke inokuthathwa kwaye inokulungelelaniswa ngokuyinxenye; Okwesibini, iyonke iyalawuleka kwaye yenziwe kancinci Okwesithathu, ukwenziwa kwayo konke kunye nenxalenye yonxibelelwano; Okwesine, ukusebenzisana ngokubanzi kunye nokudityaniswa okuhlangeneyo.

Iphondo laseJilin lihamba ngamandla kulawulo lwamandla nolawulo lweprojekthi yophando. Umyinge weyunithi yezamandla ezitshisayo kwiPhondo laseJilin likhulu, kwaye akukho kugcinwa ngokuguquguqukayo kwamandla ombane njengokumpompa kunye nerhasi. UJilin ukwindawo ebandayo. Ixesha lokushisa ebusika lifika kwisiqingatha sonyaka. Ngaphezulu kwe-90% yeeyunithi zombane ezishisayo. Ngexesha lokufudumeza, ubuncinci bokukhutshwa kwamandla ombane kugqitha umthwalo omncinci wephondo, uxinzelelo olukhulu lokufakelwa kwamandla omoya, kwaye ingxaki yokulahlwa komoya inzulu kakhulu. Esona sizathu siphambili kukuba ubudlelwane bolawulo lombane lobushushu kwiyunithi yokufudumeza kunye “nokulungisa umbane ngokufudumeza” indlela yokucutha kunciphise umthamo wayo wokuphelisa kwaye ungene kwindawo yamandla omoya. Uyisebenzisa kanjani indlela yentengiso ukukhuthaza ulawulo kunye nokuthengiswa kokuhamba kwamandla okuninzi yeyona ngxaki inocelomngeni. Ngesi sizathu, inkqubo ye-IEMS yathunyelwa ekufundeni indlela yokuthengisa yentengiso yenkqubo yokuhamba kwamandla okunika amandla amaninzi, ukufunda ngokusebenza kweendleko kwabadlali abaninzi beemarike, kunye nokufunda Ukongeza, impendulo echitha amandla enye indawo kwindawo yemiboniso yenzelwe , kunye netekhnoloji ye-multimedia yokuhamba kwamandla ahlanganisiweyo yokulawulwa kokucetyiswa kokucetywa ukusombulula ingxaki yokusetyenziswa kwamandla okukhulu komoya ngelixa kufezekiswa ubushushu obucocekileyo.

Kwinkqubo ye-intanethi yamandla ukusuka “kwimbono” ukuya “ekufakeni”, kusekho izimvo ezintsha, iitekhnoloji ezintsha, usetyenziso olutsha, oluya kulungiswa kunye nokwabelana nawe kwixa elizayo, ngethemba lokunceda wonke umsebenzi kunye nokufunda.


Ixesha lokuposa: Jul-08-2020